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Articles published from 1984-2014.

Description

Publishes original articles and commentaries on research in the fields of fundamental and applied soil and plant science. Original research papers, short communications including germplasm registrations, relevant book reviews, commentaries on papers recently published and, exceptionally, review articles will be considered for publication in the Journal. Manuscripts considered will address aspects of: Agronomical and Horticultural research including breeding and genetics, cultivar evaluation, management, nutrition, physiology, production, and quality; Soil Science research including biology, chemistry, classification, fertility, mineralogy, pedology and hydropedology, physics, and soil and land evaluation of agricultural and urban ecosystems; Weed Science research including biological control agents, biology, ecology, genetics, herbicide resistance and herbicide-resistant crops, and physiology and molecular action of herbicides and plant growth regulators; Agro-climatology; Agro-ecology; Forage, Pasture and Turfgrass science including production and utilisation; Plant and Soil Systems Modelling; Plant–Microbe Interactions; Plant–Pest Interactions; and Plant–Soil Relationships.

latest article added on October 2013

ArticleFirst AuthorPublished
Phosphorus enhances aluminium tolerance in both aluminium-tolerant and aluminium-sensitive wheat seedlingsIqbal, MT2013

Phosphorus enhances aluminium tolerance in both aluminium-tolerant and aluminium-sensitive wheat seedlings

Keywords

Al × P interaction, apoplast aluminium, bulk soil pH, genotypic variation, rhizosphere pH

Abstract

Seedlings growing in acid soils suffer both phosphorus (P) deficiency and aluminium (Al) toxicity stresses. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of Al and P interaction on Al-tolerant (ET8) and Al-sensitive (ES8) wheat genotypes in an acid soil. This study aimed to determine the interactive effect of Al and P in soil and within plant tissue. Three Al levels (0, 50 and 150 mg aluminium chloride [AlCl3] kg−1 soil) and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg P kg−1) were used in this experiment. Bulk soil pH decreased with addition of AlCl3 to the soil. Bulk soil pH increased at 160 mg P kg−1 supply at three Al levels. Phosphorus supply reduced extractable Al in the soil in all Al treatments. Seedlings suffered more from Al toxicity in the absence of P supply. Increasing P supply resulted in increased seedling biomass under high Al toxicity. This high P ameliorated Al toxicity in the soil and may enhance ES8 growth under Al toxicity. The Al × P interaction affected the root and shoot P concentration in both genotypes and P supply had no effect on P translocation to the shoot. These results suggested that differential growth behaviour between ES8 and ET8 plays an important role in tolerance to Al toxicity irrespective of high P supply. It is concluded that the higher aluminium cation (Al3+) binding capacity in the root apoplast of ET8 seedlings contributes to its improved tolerance to Al toxicity compared to ES8 seedlings.

Authors

Iqbal, MT

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.770929

This article contributed by:

Original

Principles of soil classification and the future of the South African systemvan Huyssteen, CW2013

Principles of soil classification and the future of the South African system

Keywords

soil classification, USDA Soil Taxonomy, World Reference Base

Abstract

Humans classify their environment to create order, make it understandable, aid recollection and to communicate. The nature of these classifications is not always understood, because they are learnt from an early age. Building on these principles provides a sound basis for any scientific classification. This paper explores these principles, those of the USDA Soil Taxonomy, the World Reference Base for soil resources, and the South African Soil Taxonomy. Knowledge should be ultimate aim of soil classification. A hierarchical system with four levels is proposed for the South African Soil Taxonomy. This can easily be achieved by adding a higher level, proposed to be called a Soil Group, to the current three levels (form, family, and phase). The South African Soil Taxonomy must guard against too many taxa, because humans have a limited ability to comprehend numerous taxa. The distinguishing criteria between taxa should be more clearly defined, while at the same time guarding against becoming too data hungry. The classification should not shy away from intergrades. The object being classified (soils) is a natural system and intergrades will necessarily occur. It is proposed that these should be classified as intergrades, rather than trying to artificially separate natural soil bodies.

Authors

van Huyssteen, CW, Le Roux, PAL and Turner, DP

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.771752

This article contributed by:

Original

Evaluation of electrical conductivity of the fertiliser solution on growth and flowering of a Cymbidium hybridNaik, SK2013

Evaluation of electrical conductivity of the fertiliser solution on growth and flowering of a Cymbidium hybrid

Keywords

Cymbidium hybrid, electrical conductivity, flowering, nutrition

Abstract

The effects of three fertiliser solutions (20:20:20, 15:5:25 and 12:30:10 NPK) with electrical conductivity (EC) of 1, 1.5 or 2 mS cm−1 on growth and flowering of Cymbidium ‘Sleeping Nymph’ were investigated over three years. One-year-old tissue-cultured propagules of ‘Sleeping Nymph’ were planted singly in plastic pots in a polyhouse. Plant height, leaf length, pseudobulb length and girth, and number of pseudobulbs per clump were highest in treatment T5 (20:20:20 NPK at 1.5 mS cm−1). The EC of the fertiliser solution had a significant influence on the number of spikes per plant, number of florets per spike, spike length and rachis length. The number of florets per spike and spike length were highest with fertiliser solution with an EC of 1.0 mS cm−1. The number of spikes per plant, florets per spike, spike length and rachis length (1.75, 11.25, 46.3 cm and 22 cm, respectively) were highest in treatment T4 (12:30:10 NPK at 1 mS cm−1). Plant nutrient content was highest with fertiliser solution with an EC of 2.0 mS cm−1. An EC of 0.8–1.0 mS cm−1 for the pour-through leachate from the growing medium was optimal for highest-quality flowering of the Cymbidium hybrid.

Authors

Naik, SK, Barman, D, Rampal and Medhi, RP

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.771753

This article contributed by:

Original

Effect of an organic plant fertiliser on the establishment of rooted cuttings of two species of Cyclopia (honeybush)Mbangcolo, MM2013

Effect of an organic plant fertiliser on the establishment of rooted cuttings of two species of Cyclopia (honeybush)

Keywords

Cutting position, Cyclopia genistoides, Cyclopia intermedia, Nitrosol®, root growth, shoot growth

Abstract

The effect of different application rates of an organic plant fertiliser (Nitrosol®) on the establishment and early growth of rooted cuttings of Cyclopia (Fabaceae) species was evaluated. Rooted terminal and subterminal cuttings of C. intermedia and C. genistoides were transplanted into pots (576 cm3) and treated with Nitrosol® fertiliser at application rates of 0 (control), 1.67 and 3.33 ml Nitrosol® l-1 water. To enhance the formation of nodules the cuttings were inoculated with symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria. The different species differ in their response to the fertiliser treatment, with C. genistoides showing a larger response than C. intermedia, especially at the higher application rate of 3.33 ml Nitrosol® l-1 water. This study therefore suggests that Nitrosol® fertiliser applications can be recommended to enhance the establishment of rooted cuttings of Cyclopia species, but optimum application rates may differ between species. Although a significant specie × cutting position interaction was shown with regard to plant height and number of shoots per plant, cutting position in general did not have an effect on the establisbment of the species used in this study.

Authors

Mbangcolo, MM, Reinten, EY and Agenbag, GA

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.775368

This article contributed by:

Original

Comparison of medium-term organic and inorganic fertiliser application on leaf nutrient concentration and yield of maize in rural agriculture in the Mbizana area, Eastern Cape province, South AfricaBeukes, DJ2013

Comparison of medium-term organic and inorganic fertiliser application on leaf nutrient concentration and yield of maize in rural agriculture in the Mbizana area, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

Keywords

chicken manure, nutrient uptake, soil fertility, yield

Abstract

A five-year study was conducted in the Mbizana area, Eastern Cape province, to assess the seasonal and medium term effects of chicken manure and inorganic fertiliser application to an acid clay loam topsoil on nutrient element uptake and yield of maize in a field trial under dryland. Treatments consisted of a once-off application of three levels of dolomitic lime, annual application of two levels of inorganic fertiliser, and three levels of chicken manure. A no-till practice with hand planting and fertiliser application was used. Leaf and soil sampling, as well as harvesting were performed and analyses done. Chicken manure application induced similar maize leaf macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations to the recommended inorganic fertiliser (Frec) level and, in general, significantly higher values than the traditional fertiliser level (Ftrad). Augmenting chicken manure with inorganic nitrogen led to significant increases in leaf nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Grain yields under chicken manure were similar to those under Frec, but far superior to those under Ftrad. It is concluded that under acid soil conditions the improvement of soil fertility, either by organic or inorganic fertiliser application, can result in maize grain yields of about 3 Mg ha-1 under the prevailing rainfall conditions.

Authors

Beukes, DJ, Fyfield, TP, Jezile, GG and Mapumulo, TC

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.777131

This article contributed by:

Original

Soil colour variation between topsoil and subsoil horizons in a plinthic catena on the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africavan der Waals, JH2013

Soil colour variation between topsoil and subsoil horizons in a plinthic catena on the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa

Keywords

E horizon, Munsell value, orthic A horizon, red apedal B horizon, yellow-brown apedal B horizon

Abstract

The South African plinthic catena is characterised by a grading of soils from red through yellow to grey (bleached) soils down a slope. The colour sequence is ascribed to different Fe-minerals stable at increasing degrees of wetness. Soil survey data (422 points) was obtained from three soil surveys on the Mpumalanga Highveld. For each survey point, the topsoil and subsoil horizon Munsell® colour was determined. The data was compared for topsoil horizons overlying different subsoil horizons. A distinct trend was observed in that orthic A horizons overlying yellow-brown apedal B horizons exhibited a marked lighter colour (similar to E horizons) compared to the underlying B-horizon as well as orthic A horizons overlying red apedal B horizons. This implied that topsoil colour is not indicative of subsoil horizon colour – especially in soils of the Avalon, Clovelly, Glencoe and Pinedene forms. The lighter-coloured A horizons also exhibited a marked lower clay content compared to the underlying B horizon. The lighter-coloured A horizons on high chroma B horizons have major implications for the conceptual classification of the soils as well as description of hillslope hydrology and mapping of soils from aerial photographs and satellite images.

Authors

van der Waals, JH

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.777132

This article contributed by:

Original

Growth, phenological and yield responses of a bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) landrace to imposed water stress under field conditionsMabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe2013

Growth, phenological and yield responses of a bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) landrace to imposed water stress under field conditions

Keywords

bambara groundnut landraces, chlorophyll, drought, leaf area index, stomatal conductance, yield

Abstract

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an underutilised species with potential to contribute nutritional and food security in marginal areas. Growth, phenology and yield of a local bambara groundnut landrace from Jozini, KwaZulu-Natal, characterised into three selections according to seed coat colour, namely Brown, Red and Light Brown, were evaluated under irrigated and rain-fed field conditions at Roodeplaat, Pretoria, over two seasons (2010/11 and 2011/12). Trials with three replicates were planted under rain-fed and irrigated conditions with seed colour as a subfactor. Emergence (up to 35 d after planting), plant height, leaf number, leaf area index, chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were measured in situ. Yield and components of yield were determined at harvest. The Red, Brown and Light Brown landrace selections emerged well (84%, 81% and 51%, respectively). Plant physiological and growth parameters of stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content index, plant height, leaf number, leaf area index and biomass accumulation were lower under rain-fed relative to irrigated conditions. Adaptations were landrace selection-specific, with the Brown and Red landrace selections showing better adaptation to rain-fed conditions. Under rain-fed conditions, bambara groundnut landrace selections flowered, senesced and matured earlier relative to irrigated conditions. Consequently, there were lower yields under rain-fed compared with irrigated conditions. The Red and Brown landrace selections may have drought-avoidance mechanisms. Seed colour may be used as a selection criterion for drought tolerance in bambara groundnut landraces.

Authors

Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe and Modi, Albert T

Year Published

2013

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2013.790492

This article contributed by:

Original

Winter cover crops effects on soil strength, infiltration and water retention in a sandy loam Oakleaf soil in Eastern Cape, South AfricaMupambwa, HA2012

Winter cover crops effects on soil strength, infiltration and water retention in a sandy loam Oakleaf soil in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Keywords

lupin, oats, plant available water, vetch, water infiltration rate

Abstract

There is substantial evidence that cover crops increase soil fertility and plant nutrition but the few studies concerning soil physical properties are conflicting. This study determined the effects of monocultures of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), oats (Avena sativa L.) and bicultures of oats and vetch and a weedy fallow on the strength and water conservation properties of a hardsetting Oakleaf soil. Oats monoculture lowered the soil strength by 48.5%, whilst vetch and lupin increased soil strength by 43% and 31%, respectively, relative to the control. Bicultures decreased soil strength as the proportion of oats increased. Oats monoculture increased cumulative water infiltration relative to the control. Bicultures increased the water final infiltration rate by 105–163% compared to the control. Plant available water increased by 24–28% compared to the weedy fallow under monocultures. However, no significant differences were observed on plant available water after two rotations with bicultures compared to the weedy fallow. We concluded that oats monoculture reduced the strength and improved water conservation properties of the hardsetting soil but vetch and lupin monoculture worsened the deleterious effects of the hardsetting phenomenon.

Authors

Mupambwa, HA and Wakindiki, IIC

Year Published

2012

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2012.722697

This article contributed by:

Original

Carbon stocks in fynbos, pastures and vineyards on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: a preliminary assessmentMills, AJ2012

Carbon stocks in fynbos, pastures and vineyards on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: a preliminary assessment

Keywords

aboveground biomass, agriculture, carbon sequestration, land conversion, land use, soil carbon

Abstract

Large tracts of fynbos on the Agulhas Plain are being converted to agriculture. Carbon (C) stocks in fynbos, pastures and vineyards were measured in this preliminary study to determine whether conservation of fynbos results in greater C storage relative to agricultural land uses. Fynbos had greater aboveground C than pastures (12.7 ± 1.7 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 t C ha−1), greater root C than pastures and vineyards (13.0 ± 11.7, 4.9 ± 1.4 and 0.2 ± 0.2 t C ha−1, respectively), less soil organic C than pastures (1.26 ± 0.14 vs 2.06 ± 0.22%) and less total soil C than pastures (66.7 ± 7.2 vs 99.2 ± 10.9 t C ha−1). The results indicate that conversion of fynbos into pastures is unlikely to result in a net loss of C stocks because reductions in aboveground biomass, litter and root C are recovered through gains in soil C. Conversion of fynbos into vineyards is likely to result in a net loss of approximately 23 t C ha−1 in aboveground and root biomass.

Authors

Mills, AJ, Birch, SC, Stephenson, JD and Bailey, RV

Year Published

2012

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2012.730636

This article contributed by:

Original

Winter cover crops and fertiliser effects on the weed seed bank in a low-input maize-based conservation agriculture systemDube, E2012

Winter cover crops and fertiliser effects on the weed seed bank in a low-input maize-based conservation agriculture system

Keywords

grazing vetch, mulch effects, oat, problematic weeds

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of grazing vetch (Vicia dasycarpa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crops and fertiliser on the seed bank of some problematic weeds in a maize-based conservation agriculture system. Soil sampling for seed bank analysis was carried out at the 0–5 and 5–20 cm depths after four years of rotations. The winter cover crops reduced the seed-bank density of Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Datura stramonium L. in the 0–5 cm depth by 30–70%. Vetch was more effective on depleting the D. sanguinalis seed bank than oat. Fertiliser application reduced the A. retroflexus seed bank by 41.6% in the weedy fallow, but had no significant effect in plots grown to the cover crops. The winter cover crops did not significantly affect seed-bank weed species diversity.

Authors

Dube, E, Chiduza, C, Muchaonyerwa, P, Fanadzo, M and Mthoko, TS

Year Published

2012

Publication

South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Locations
DOI

10.1080/02571862.2012.730637

This article contributed by:

Original

Recent Articles

Perspectives on the Principles and Structure of the Soil Classification System in South Africa: Discussion and Practical Examples

by Turner, David P

The paper discusses revised principles, perspectives and structure for soil classification of natural soils in South Africa. An expanded ‘sphere of pedological interest’ is proposed through the formal recognition of a wider range of subsurface soil materials. The concept of soil groups has been recognised and is further developed as a formal classification category. In addition, a subgroup cate...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Physicochemical Properties of Pomegranate Grown in Different Microclimates in South Africa

by Mditshwa, Asanda, Fawole, Olaniyi A, Al-Said, Fahad, Al-Yahyai, Rashid and Opara, Umezuruike L

We investigated the antioxidant and physicochemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum cv. Bhagwa) fruit grown in three microclimates in South Africa. The physicochemical properties of fruit peel and arils differed among the growing locations, including weight and redness color of both peel and arils. Contents of vitamin C, anthocyanin and total phenolics were 0.67–1.41 mg ml−1, 0.07–0....

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil


Estimation of Thrips (fulmekiola Serrata Kobus) Density in Sugarcane Using Leaf-Level Hyperspectral Data

by Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M, Way, Mike, Ahmed, Fethi, Ismail, Riyad and Adam, Elhadi

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of leaf-level hyperspectral data to predict the density of sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata (Kobus). A hand-held spectroradiometer was used to make the spectral measurements on spindle leaves of 4- to 5-month-old plants of sugarcane cv. N19 growing in commercial fields near Umfolozi, South Africa. A random forest algorithm followed b...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil

A Revised Perspective on Principles of Soil Classification in South Africa

by Turner, David P

Limited significance has been given to the formal recognition of certain subsoil materials in the South African Soil Classification System. Three principles in the current classification system are discussed using variants of soil profiles associated with the Avalon soil form. The retention of the arbitrary depth criterion is questioned in favour of the recognition of an enlarged ‘sphere of ped...

published 2013 in South African Journal of Plant and Soil